Reading Resources

Sound charts

We all have similar tongues, lips, teeth, tongues and throats. The consonsant sounds of languages may be the same or there may be a couple of similar sounds in a language that are reprensented by just one sound in English. Or some English sounds may not exist in other languages. Use these charts to figure out which sounds are the same and different.

Armenian consonants

English consonants

Hmong consonants

Russian consonants

Spanish consonants

Ukrainian consonants

Vietnamese consonants

Comparative consonants chart (English, Vietnamese, Hmong, Spanish, Russian, Ukrainian, Armenian)

Compative vowels charts (English, Vietnamese, Hmong, Spanish, Russian, Ukrainian, Armenian)

Threshold Vocabulary

Which words are the most frequent in English? Which ones form the "threshold" for understanding written English? We worked with 2000 words in the General Service List (GSL) and about 600 words from the Academic Word List (AWL). The Threshold Vocabulary words are the first 1000 words in the GSL. The online Vocabulary Profiler demonstrates the frequency of words in any text.

Notes on vocabulary learning research (Lewis)

Hmong Proverbs

26 Hmong proverbs, word-by-word translation into English, and the "glossed" English meaning.

© Refugee Educators' Network, Inc.,  2012